�������@Mail.ru
DSpace About DSpace Software
 

Library ODAU >
ПРАЦІ ВЧЕНИХ ОДАУ >
*АВТОРЕФЕРАТИ >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/596

Название: Грунти заплав малих та середніх річок північно-західного Причорномор’я
Другие названия: Почвы пойм малых и средних рек северо-западного Причерноморья
The soils of flood plains of the small and mean rivers in north-western part of the Black sea
Авторы: Михайлюк, В.І.
Михайлюк, В.И.
Mikhayliyk, V.
Ключевые слова: Грунтознавство
грунти, грунтовий покрив, заплава, класифікація, моделі, елементарні грунтові процеси, ландшафтно-геохімічні процеси, властивості, моніторинг.
почвы, почвенный покров, пойма, классификация, диагностика, модели, элементарные почвенные процессы, ландшафтно-геохимические процессы, свойства, мониторинг
top-soil, soil, flood-lands, classification, diagnostics, model, elementary soil processes, landschaft-geochemical processes, properties, monitoring
Issue Date: 2002
Издатель: Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка
Библиографическое описание: УДК 631.4:551.4 Михайлюк В.І. Грунти заплав малих та середніх річок Північно-Західного Причорномор'я: автореф. дис... д-ра геогр. наук: 11.00.05 / В.І. Михайлюк; Львів. нац. ун-т ім. Івана Франка. — Л., 2002. — 33 с.
Аннотация: На основі системного підходу, поєднання концепцій елементарних грунтових процесів (ЕГП) і еволюції грунтів з ландшафтно-геохімічним аналізом грунтоутворення визначені механізми і географічні особливості функціонування ландшафтно-геохімічних і ЕГП, розроблені модель заплавного грунтоутворення, профільно-генетична класифікація заплавних грунтів, еколого-агромеліоративна класифікація заплавних земель; запропоновані критерії діагностики грунтів і лабільних грунтових тіл на основі поняття грунтова часова катена, розкриті особливості екології, генези і географії грунтів, їх будови, складу, властивостей, режимів. На підставі багаторічного моніторингу агроекологічного стану грунтів проаналізована динаміка ЕГП та характер зміни властивостей грунтів при їх осушенні та зрошенні, розроблені критерії доцільності використання заплавних земель. Відзначається, що масштабне осушення заплав є не раціональним.
На основе системного подхода, объединения концепций элементарных почвенных процессов (ЭПП) и эволюции почв с ландшафтно-геохимическим анализом почвообразования определены механизмы и географические особенности функционирования ландшафтно-геохимических и ЭПП, разработаны модель пойменного почвообразования, профильно-генетическая классификация пойменных почв, эколого-агромелиоративная классификация пойменных земель; предложены критерии диагностики почв и лабильных почвенных тел на основе понятия почвенная временная катена, раскрыты особенности экологии, генезиса и географии почв, их строения, состава, свойств, режимов. На основании многолетнего мониторинга агроэкологического состояния почв проанали-зированы динамика ЭПП и характер изменения свойств почв при их осушении и орошении, разработаны критерии целесообразности использования пойменных земель. Отмечается, что масштабное осушение пойм является не рациональным.
Object of research is alluvial soils of flood plains. The system methodical approach and connecting of the concepts of elementary soil process (ESP) and evolution of soils are applied with landscape-geochemical analysis of soil formation. The features of ecology, genesis and geography, the properties, regimes, composition of alluvial flood plains soils of the small and mean rivers in the northwestern part of the Black Sea are learnt. Geographic peculiarity of upbuilding, morphology and dynamics of salts in alluvial soils is investigated, mathematical models of salts upbuilding in soils and groundwater's are proposed. Formation of humus is examined in the alkaline-saline soils and at progressing of gley process. Gley process (typical, concealed and sulphide the types of gley horizons are characterized); processes of alkalization on the basis of analysis of dynamics of salts and condition of soil colloids; stage of process of formation of compact structure of soils were studied. Model of formation of alluvial soils in flood-plains; profile-genetic classification of soils of flood-plains (six associations of soils are characterised – stratifiedzem, meadowzem, gleyzem, vertisolis, solonchak and agrozem, – and 18 types of soils); method of diagnostics of labile soils on the basis of concept the soil temporary catena (STC); ecological-agromelioration classification of grounds of flood-plains; the theory of vertisolis formation as landscape-straingeochemical of process, which is developed in pseudo-automorphic conditions; the physico-mechanical concept of formation of compact adding up of soils as elementary soil process; the appreciation of intensity of progressing of gley process on the base of a proportion oxidation-reduction buffering in zone and hydromorphig soils; the mechanism of a alkalization of gley soils are designed. STC – elementary soil areal, in which one soil will evolve with current of time in other soil. The concept STC is recommended to be utilized for diagnostics of labile soils and soils mapping. It is expedient to distinguish cyclical and progressive STC. To cyclic belong gley and salines STC, and to progressive vertisolis-morphic STC. The formation and upbuilding of humus is learnt at three types of conditions: 1) upbuildings of humus at influencing of anaerobic conditions; 2) upbuildings of humus in conditions of the decrease biological activity because of presence of toxic salts; 3) upbuildings of humus in zone conditions. On intensity of progressing of gley process of soil are divided on steady against progressing reduction processes, on is gentle steady against progressing reduction processes and on soils with mobile reactings of reduction and sluggish oxidizing reactions. The formation of vertisolis is process of the directional variation of the microstructure – magnification of force of energy of cohesion at microaggregation of soils at the expense of mass forming of packages of oriented clays. Microaggregation of clay particles takes place at the expense of deformation of soil mass in consequence of swelling soils. The stages of a subсompact (cyclical sealing of isotropic soil mass) and representative compact (directional sealing of soils at forming anisotropic soil mass with oriented clay minerals) are characterized. Micromorphological properties have been used as criteria to subdivide soil into vertisolis and sub-vertisolis ones. Vertisolis of flood-plains of the small and mean rivers are formed in pseudo-automorphig conditions at lithogene aqueous regime. His key feature is the very low involvement of groundwaters in aqueous balance of soils because of screening a surface by clay material. The salinization of vertisolis takes place as a result lateral of carrying salts. The basic reductant of a top-soil of flood-plains are meadowzem, which one are characterized isohumus by a profile and gentle attributes of gley process. The alluvial salines are derivatives of a meadow soil, gley soil and vertisolis. Specificity of saliniferous landscapes in flood-plains of the rivers is exhibited in forming a complex microrelief and of a vegetative overlying strata, in forming contrast on the contents of humus and salts of microstations of soils. The solonetz profiles in flood-plains of the rivers have a polygenetic genesis. In deltas of the rivers with a sulfate-chloride type of a salinization the salines-solonetz are formed. They are characterized by intensive upbuilding of salts and feebly marked differentiation of a profile of soils. The conditions of forming gley soils promote their intensive salinization. In soils, which one flank contiguity to marshland with intensive gley processes, the significant quantity(amount) of hydrooxides of iron collects. The soils as chemical barriers of iron describe by a separate subtype – gleyzem ferriferous. The long-term monitoring of an agroecological condition of soils has allowed analysing dynamics ESP and nature of variation of properties of the drained and irrigated soils. The correlative connections between properties of soils and agricultural crops are determined, and also the yardsticks of expediency of use of grounds of flood plains of the small rivers are designed. Agricultural use of grounds at significant propagation of alkaline-salines, gley and potentially compact soils should be founded on the ecological concept of management of nature, applying of adaptive landscape system of agriculture. The rare and unique soils require juridical protection.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/596
Appears in Collections:*АВТОРЕФЕРАТИ

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
Міхайлюк В.І..doc239 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
View Statistics

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

Valid XHTML 1.0! DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2010  Duraspace - Feedback